Nine immune-boosting Nutrients you need this Year

Live Healthy Anywhere, on the road and on the go.
While we hold fast to obtaining maximum nutrition through a seasonal and varied diet of organic whole foods – here are necessary nutrients to bolster immunity, especially important for travelers.
 
Included are benefits of each nutrient, where to find it on the road, and how to use it at home.
 
As always, please discuss with your Physician before making any changes to your diet or lifestyle. The below is not intended to be medical advice. 
 
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1. Organosulfur compounds, in Garlic

Garlic’s healing properties have been touted for centuries. 
 
Benefits: Organosulfur compounds such as aliin, allicin, and many more found in garlic, are immune-stimulating and health-promoting. Studies have confirmed benefits including heart protection, inflammation reduction, allergy prevention, blood pressure reduction, cholesterol control, and disease prevention – also likely including cancer prevention.
 
Nutrient Nuance: Always smash or chop garlic then allow to sit 10-15 minutes before eating or heating to maximize health benefits. 
 
On the road: Look for avocado toast with raw garlic and olive oil. Or ask for vegetables like asparagus or broccoli topped with garlic and olive oil.  
 
Quick and easy, At home: 
  • Make your own quick garlic toast using sprouted bread, raw minced garlic, chopped parsley, olive oil, and avocado if desired.
  • Add raw minced garlic to hot bone broth when feeling run-down.
  • Lightly sauté garlic with organic tomatoes (early girl tomatoes, when in season, are amazing) in olive oil. Keep the heat low to medium to maintain integrity and nutrition of the oil.  

Please note that certain immune-stimulating foods, like garlic, may be detrimental to those with autoimmune disease (e.g. lupus). 

Photo by Nick Fewings on Unsplash

2. Isothiocyanates, from chewing Cruciferous Vegetables

Bless those Brussels Sprouts! Cruciferous Vegetables also include cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnips, collard greens, bok choy, black and brown mustard seed, and more. When we eat these specific vegetables, bioactive compounds called isothiocyanates are released, bringing many benefits. 

Benefits: In numerous mice studies, isothiocyanates were identified to reduce and prevent both tumors and cancer. These anti-cancer and anti-tumor benefits go above and beyond benefits from our ‘normal’ fruits and vegetables. Other studies have reported cardiovascular and heart disease protection, genetic protection, positive longevity enhancement, and brain benefits to boot. (Many studies specifically point to sulforaphane, a powerhouse isothiocyanate.) 

Nutrient Nuance: Isothiocyanates (especially sulforaphane) are released when these vegetables are raw and chewed well. If the vegetable has been heated, then myrosinase, a necessary enzyme, must be added to produce sulforaphane. We can easily add myrosinase by sprinkling fresh ground mustard seed on any heated cruciferous vegetable(s).

One study suggests that sulforaphane is maximized in broccoli florets by heating to 134.6 degrees F for 10 minutes. Another suggested steaming for 3-4 minutes instead for a similar effect with less effort. (And always add ground mustard seed!) 

On the road: Completely chew raw broccoli, cauliflower, watercress and massaged kale salads.  If you have access to ground mustard seed (or bring some with you), sprinkle on any cooked cruciferous vegetable (broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) to activate the isothiocyanates that would otherwise have been lost due to cooking. 
 
Quick and easy, At home: Consume a good mix of raw and cooked cruciferous vegetables. Be sure to completely chew the former, and to sprinkle ground mustard seed on the latter. 
  • Lightly steam broccoli and cauliflower up to 3-4 minutes. Or blanch with water temp just under 135 F. Always sprinkle with ground mustard seed to obtain the benefits!
  • Make a massaged raw kale salad. Rub a combination of minced garlic, olive oil, and lemon juice into clean and dry kale leaves (stalks removed). Top with raw onion, walnuts, avocado and more as desired. 
  • Make collard greens with garlic and onion, topped with ground mustard seed for a super-immune-boosting and delicious side. See full recipe here
Photo by FOODISM360 on Unsplash

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3. Carotenoids, from vibrant-colored vegetables and fruit.

Carotenoids are protective pigments in plants that act as protective antioxidants in humans. Various carotenoids have been shown to have immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, they are believed to bolster the brain, promote vision, and protect against heart disease. 
 
Common carotenoids include beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. They are found in bright-colored fruits and vegetables – specifically the red, orange, green and yellow ones. We need all of these in our daily diet, ideally through whole foods. 
 
Our bodies convert beta-carotene into Vitamin A, key for strengthening our immune system. (note, it is best to get Vitamin A from natural beta carotene sources, as our bodies convert what we need and benefit from storing the rest. When taken in supplement form, Vitamin A can be toxic if we get too much.) Foods high in beta carotene include orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, winter squash, and more.
 
Lycopene is found in ‘red’ fruits and vegetables such as watermelon, guava, tomatoes and papayas. While it does not convert into Vitamin A, lycopene is a powerful antioxidant known to improve immune function, and numerous studies have observed protective anti-cancer properties, particularly with prostate cancer. 
 
Lutein and zeaxanthin protect our eyes and help to prevent age-related eye diseases and conditions, such as macular degeneration and cataracts. These nutrients are especially found in spinach, kale, and other leafy greens. 
 

Benefits: Immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Promotes brain and nervous system development in babies through mother’s milk. Other studies have reported cardiovascular and heart disease protection. BONUS: Many whole foods rich in carotenoids are also rich in Vitamin C. e.g. Red bell peppers, guava, kale, etc, 

Nutrient Nuance: Carotenoids are best absorbed when eaten with a small amount of fat. Chopping and cooking also tend to increase the bioavailability of carotenoids. 

On the road: Look for bright red, orange, and yellow organic vegetables and fruits, plus leafy greens. Thankfully we have a wide variety of these! Aim for a nice mix of colors, including both raw and cooked. Be sure to eat some healthy fat (e.g. avocado, olive oil) along with these vegetables. 
 
Quick and easy, At home:
  • Eat raw red bell pepper with hummus, including fat (from tahini, olive oil). 
  • Lightly steam spinach and top with garlic and 1 TBSP olive oil.  
  • Lightly sauté mustard greens in refined coconut oil or avocado oil (heat-resistant oils)
  • Massage clean and dry kale pieces with olive oil. Sprinkle turmeric and nutritional yeast liberally, then add a touch of Himalayan sea salt. Bake at 225 for 10 minutes or until desired crispness. Sprinkle with ground mustard seed. 
  • Make collard greens with garlic and onion, topped with ground mustard seed for a super-immune-boosting and delicious side. See full recipe here.
Photo by Ella Olsson on Unsplash
Photo by 王小明 on Unsplash

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4. Immune-boosting Minerals: Zinc + Selenium

We include two trace elements as must-have minerals to support our immune system. 
 
Zinc makes up a part of all our cells and is key for promoting cellular growth, healing wounds, and inhibiting viruses (e.g. the common cold). It is believed that many people have a slight zinc deficiency, yielding a less robust immune system. Zinc also has neural calming benefits and has been used to fight depression and promote mental alertness. Zinc works synergistically with Vitamin B6 to prevent histamine production, thus may be effective for allergy treatment. Alcohol and high stress can deplete zinc stores. Zinc depletion has been linked to male infertility. 
 
Selenium works synergistically with Vitamin E to promote the immune system, fight free radicals, enhance skin elasticity and protect against signs of aging. Low levels of selenium have been linked to increased risks for heart disease, cancer, thyroid problems, and cognitive decline. 
 
Benefits: Strong antioxidants, immune-stimulating, anti-cancer, anti-viral. 
 
On the road: 
If you enjoy raw oysters and can find a good clean source of cold water, raw oysters are among the best sources of zinc. Otherwise, pumpkin seeds, ginger root, pecans, grass-fed beef, and other shellfish (clams, shrimp) offer zinc benefits. Shitake and crimini mushrooms are also good sources. 
 
Brazil nuts pack an impressive punch of selenium plus some zinc as well. Eat one or up to two, mixed with sunflower seeds which contain Vitamin E for the synergistic health-promoting effects. Wild salmon and other fish offer selenium – look for preparations incorporating ginger and or garlic for added zinc benefit. Swiss chard, whole-wheat bread, and oats also offer modest amounts of selenium. 
 
At home
  • Make the kale chips recipe topped with liberal amounts of nutritional yeast, which includes both selenium and zinc, plus bonus B Vitamins.
  • Enjoy organic oatmeal topped with a handful of pecans and wheat germ.
  • Cook wild salmon with minced ginger root and garlic. Serve with sautéed spinach or asparagus spears.
Photo by Paula Borowska on Unsplash

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5. Inflammation taming Turmeric

Regarded for medicinal and beneficial properties as far back as 3000 BC, turmeric is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent with antioxidant effects. Turmeric contains compounds called curcuminoids, and of particular interest is the polyphenol curcumin which yields the yellow color and is believed to be a major contributor to the anti-inflammatory benefits of turmeric. Beyond inflammation, turmeric has been cited for many more healthful and protective properties.
 
It can be safely used by most people for inflammation and pain, and for diseases such as arthritis. It has also been found to reduce cancer risk and to decrease the size of tumors and similar growths. Many studies report that curcumin in turmeric not only prevents cancer cell growth but also promotes the death of cancer cells (leukemia and lymphoma)1. Other studies confirmed photo-protective properties, meaning turmeric actually helps protect the skin against ultraviolet radiation (topically applied in studies). Turmeric can give your brain a boost and help fight depression. It also helps us absorb more beta carotene and Vitamin A when it is consumed with foods containing these nutrients. Turmeric’s protective properties come in handy with cooking – it has been shown to reduce harmful, potentially carcinogenic compounds (heterocyclic amines, aka “HCAs”) that are formed when grilling meats. Simply adding 1-2 teaspoons of turmeric as a seasoning for every 3.5 ounces of meat helps reduce these harmful HCAs.
 
Benefits: Anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, promotes healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Heart protective – may help prevent cardiovascular disease and decrease high blood pressure. Decreases the size of tumors and other growths. Protects against UV-B rays and also UVA radiation2. Enhances brain function. Used to fight depression. Helpful for Crohn’s disease, colitis, and irritable bowel disease. Aids in absorption of vitamin A.
 
Nutrient nuances: Not recommended for pregnant women – can promote uterine stimulation. Also not recommended for those on blood-thinning medication, as turmeric can act as a blood thinning agent. Consume turmeric with black pepper to enhance absorption. Healthy fats may also aid absorption. Always discuss with a physician before making dietary changes or incorporating something like turmeric.
 
On the road: Seek organic curry dishes with sustainable meats. Enjoy a quick wellness shot (2-4 oz) including turmeric and black pepper (or peperine). (We’ve been known to deliver these to concierge customers on the go). 
 
At home: 
  • When grilling or cooking meats on high heat, season every 3.5oz (small palm portion) of meat with 1-2 teaspoons of turmeric to reduce toxins from cooking. 
  • Make quick and nourishing turmeric tea. Steep fresh grated or minced turmeric in boiled water for at least 5 minutes. Option: add fresh ginger root for the steeping. Add a touch of lemon and/or honey per preference. 
  • Make the kale chips recipe but replace the listed curry powder with liberal amounts of turmeric instead. 
Turmeric for Inflammation, by Healthy Anywhere
Photo by Marie Grob on Unsplash

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6. Healthy Fats

While fat has had a bad rap in years past, science has shown that fat in the correct form and amount is beneficial. Fat helps build and protect our brains and our cells, and it can even protect against inflammation. In fact, approximately 60% of our brain consists of fat! 

Without sufficient healthy fat, we harm our cells, brain, immune system, and even heart. 

Fats are responsible for transporting key fat-soluble vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E, and K. With healthy fat, we better absorb these key nutrients known for supporting our immune system and overall health.  

Essential fatty acids, including Omega 6s (linoleic acid and derivatives) and Omega 3s (alpha linolenic acid and derivatives), are necessary for healthy functioning and must be obtained via our diet, with as much as 5% of our daily calories optimally coming from these essential fatty acids. Omega 6s are pro-inflammatory, and Omega 3s anti-inflammatory. Omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA help to reduce inflammation and act as antioxidants by reducing oxidative stress. We need a healthy balance of Omega 6s and Omega3s to support a healthy immune system and optimal functions. (for more information on inflammation, read here
 
Benefits: Healthy fats protect our brains, control and reduce inflammation, and enhance key nutrient absorption (vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants). Fat promotes satiety, balanced hormones, healthy blood sugar and energy, and healthy skin, hair, and eyes. It insulates, protects, and promotes nerve conductivity and cellular structural integrity. Sufficient healthy fat is required to support fertility. 
 

Nutrient nuances: 

Eat a variety of natural, unprocessed fats from quality sources including both plant and animal sources. The latter should come only from pastured sources for some Omega 3. 
 
Always eat fat with vegetables (and fruit is OK) to get the benefits of optimal nutrient absorption. 
 
Take care when cooking with fats or oils! Over-heating promotes oxidation and formation of free radicals, in addition to removing the healthful properties. This causes more harm than good. Consult the smoke point for each type of fat or oil used, and stay well below the max temperature. When sautéing, stick with lower temperature settings. 
 
Focus on getting more Omega 3s. While the exact prescribed ratio and existing ratios may vary, it is clear that today’s standard American diet is unbalanced and includes an overload of the pro-inflammatory Omega 6s, in respect to the anti-inflammatory Omega 3s. Most processed foods contain highly processed Omega 6 oils. Currently, the ratio of Omega 6: Omega 3 is between 10:1 and 20:1, with many sources reporting 15:1. The beneficial ratio, however, reportedly should be no higher than 4:1, with some suggesting 1:1 or even higher Omega 3 intake.
 
On the road: 
Where readily available, actively seek avocado for healthy fat (plus a bonus blast of potassium).  At restaurants, if the dressing and cooking oil sources are nebulous, we request olive oil and balsamic vinegar on the side to dress our own salads and meals. Any restaurant should be able to tell exactly which oils are used for dressings and cooking. We always ask and steer clear of vegetable, canola, corn and soybean oils, especially if not organic. For carry-ons and purses, organic walnuts and pumpkin seeds are great standby snacks, so long as not consumed in one sitting! 
Learn about healthy fats on Healthy Anywhere
Healthy fat with a carotenoid-rich fruit - a beautiful combination! Photo by David Di Veroli on unplash

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7. Flavonoids

Flavonoids are miraculous mechanisms inside plants that are revered for health benefits. Over 6,000 types of individual flavonoids exist, and researchers continue to discover new flavonoids and new benefits, even as I type these words.
 
Flavonoids are widely known to be potent antioxidants – they fight free radicals to prevent the oxidative DNA and cellular damage that often precede cancer and chronic diseases. Flavonoids are further known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and even anti-allergy properties. Studies have found marked reductions in both BMI and inflammatory markers with increased flavonoid use. There are several classes of flavonoids.
 
Dark berries with their red, blue, and purple pigments belong to the anthocyanidins class of flavonoids. Beyond the aforementioned antioxidant activity, such berries have been associated with brain benefits as well. Studies on older adults with early signs of dementia found neurocognitive improvements after only 12-weeks of blueberry juice supplementation. Participants’ memory and mood were both markedly increased over the placebo group.
 
Citrus flavonoids found in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and more further help to improve blood circulation, to lower blood cholesterol, and to increase the activity of vitamin C. In fact, while vitamin C is known for its beneficial antioxidant effects, flavonoids have been shown to be superior in terms of antioxidant capacity7
 
Benefits: Flavonoids offer a reported more potent, even broader reach in terms of antioxidant effects vs vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, zinc, and selenium8. Studies on the anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, heart-protective and obesity-prevention properties of flavonoids are mounting.. and ongoing. For example, researchers are investigating the potential to substitute flavonoids for pharmacological compounds in today’s flu shots for an effective and more natural approach9. Given the anti-inflammatory effects, flavonoids are often recommended for helping to ease arthritis. 
 
Nutrient nuances: 
Flavonoids and beneficial compounds are not much degraded by freezing – so frozen berries are a terrific choice in off-season months. We would argue such frozen berries are better than any “fresh” berries from the store that have crossed state or international borders! 
When consuming organic citrus fruits, don’t forget the peel! The peel contains an impressive amount of flavonoids, vitamin c, and phenolic compounds.  
 
On the road: Look for opportunities to add blueberries and similar, preferably organic dark berries, to oatmeal and salads. (With oatmeal, we recommend ordering everything on the side, lest we find the oatmeal swimming in milk and brown sugar or honey.) Enjoy citrus fruits and green tea. Onions offer a surprising allergy defense, as onions include a high level of quercetin. Quercetin is proven to help with allergies, especially hay fever, by suppressing histamine release. 
 
At home: Buy local organic berries when in season and frozen when not in season. When consuming organic citrus fruits, try zesting the (washed) peels for dressings or toppings, or even nibble on a piece of peel for good health. Enjoy organic green tea liberally in the mornings. 
Healthy Anywhere - learn about Flavonoids
Flavonoid-rich berries.

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8. Immune-strengthening Vitamins: A, C, E, D, B6

We cover the key immune-boosting Vitamins (A, C, E, D, and B6) our bodies need to bolster defenses to live healthy anywhere, especially on the road. All of Vitamins A, C, E, and B6 act as powerful antioxidants to scavenge free-radicals and negate their otherwise harmful effects. As always, we recommend maximizing nutrients first from whole foods before looking to supplements.

Vitamin A is found either in animal foods such as fish oils and liver, or converted in our bodies from beta-carotene (see carotenoids above!)

Vitamin C is crucial for collagen production in our bodies. This makes C important for wound-healing, in addition to immune support.

Vitamin E is originally known for its role in aiding fertility. While this powerful antioxidant is present in all our cells, Vitamin E interestingly is even more present in our immune cells.
 
Once revered for benefits to our bones and enhanced Calcium absorption, Vitamin D has been studied more intensely over the past two decades for its additional immune-stimulating properties. Scientists discovered Vitamin D receptor cells and activating enzymes in non-skeletal tissues and cells, which indicated further use and benefit beyond our bones. 
 
Vitamin B6 is associated with significant immune activity, amongst many other important functions. A deficiency in B6 can lead to decreased immune cells and impaired functions of white blood cells, antibodies, the thymus, and lymph – all key for a healthy immune system10.
 
Benefits: 
  • Protect against chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and infection.13
  • Stimulate and support key immune system function and modulation. Aid white blood cell production and function (C, E, B6) and antibody levels and responses11 (C, B6).
  • Bolster our defenses against microbes and viruses. Build resistance against infection. (C, D)
  • Bolster defense mechanisms of our mucous membranes (eyes, nose, ears, throat, etc) (A)
  • Enhance and support healthy skin (A, C, E, D) and fertility. (A, E)
  • Improve Vision, especially night vision, by supporting the rods in our eyes. (A) 
  • Help to lower bad cholesterol (C, B6)
  • Protect cells, helps to slow aging and keep our brains sharp. (E)
  • Promote energy & Mood (B6)
Nutrient Nuances:
Vitamins C and B6 are water-soluble and must be replenished daily. Vitamins A, E, and D are are all fat-soluble, and they are best absorbed when consumed with fat. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored until our bodies need them.
 
Note that stress, alcohol, illness, certain medications, and/or poor diet can deplete the vitamins our body needs. With fat-soluble vitamins, deficiencies tend to be more common than toxicity, especially with A and E. Toxicity with D is possible, and we each individually absorb with varying efficiency, so levels should be monitored by a physician.
 
On the road: 
  • Keep a mix of nuts and seeds in your carry-on, including sunflower seeds and walnuts for Vitamins B6 and E, and almonds for extra E.
  • Enjoy cooked Wild Salmon or Mackerel for excellent sources of Vitamin D. Look for sardines on the menu as well.
  • Leafy greens are king and give you a good dose of not only Vitamin A through beta-carotene conversion, but also Vitamins E and C.
  • Snag a salad including cabbage for Vitamins C and B6.
  • Spice up a salad or any dish with red chili peppers for additional Vitamins A and C.
At home: 
  • Sardines and canned tuna fish in their own oil are both top sources for Vitamin D; but due to their strong smell, we save these for at home, unless a restaurant has a sardine appetizer.
  • Make our Kale chips recipe, including nutritional yeast for B6, plus Vitamins A and E with the Kale and Olive oil.

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9. Live culture and Fermented Foods

Probiotics are frequently championed in the quest to increase immunity and gut health. While we agree probiotics supplementation may be a necessary and effective short term measure, we recommend incorporating live cultured and fermented foods as a natural and more sustainable long term strategy. 
 
Microorganisms present in fermented foods are genetically similar to probiotic strains16 and can help improve gastrointestinal health17. Studies have shown that individuals who eat a more traditional diet, including fermented foods, have a greater diversity of microbiome bacteria, which makes for more robust physical and psychological health14.
 
Fermentation works to impart beneficial enzymes, increase nutrient production and enhance bio-availability of certain nutrients, extend food ‘shelf-life’, and degrade anti-nutrients. It also adds a nice ‘punch’ of taste and texture15
 
During fermentation, many beneficial compounds are created or liberated. This includes enzymes, peptides, and other microorganisms that can help increase antioxidant activity18, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, and bolster cardiovascular support through the production of beneficial nutrients like folate, Vitamins B12, and K2, riboflavin, etc19.
 
For example, the heart-protective and health-promoting nutrients isoflavones and saponin were both found to be increased through the fermentation process, specifically in fermented soybean foods (miso, tempeh, natto).
 
Benefits
  • Support a healthy balance of intestinal flora by feeding the growth of good bacteria and protecting against intestinal pathogens and disease-causing bad bacteria.20
  • Improve gut health and digestion, and enhance the absorbability and availability of vital vitamins, minerals, & other nutrients. For example, enhance circulating vitamin D levels and enhance Omega 3 levels in tissues.21
Nutrient Nuance: 
Most any live cultured foods will have probiotic benefits. However, commercialized and mass-produced products may not have the potency of cultured foods made in small batches, more akin to traditional preparations.
 
Note that while pickled foods may contain probiotics, they also can contain high amounts of sodium – so keep this nuance in mind and don’t overdo pickles, pickled beets, etc.
 
Individuals who may be sensitive to biogenic amines (e.g. histamine, tyramine) should avoid or limit fermented foods. 
 
Always buy from trusted sources, and if you choose to try fermentation at home, exercise caution when working with starter cultures. 
 
On the road: 
  • Seek whole, organic unflavored (plain) yogurt
  • Consume healthy beverages like beet kvas or kefir
  • Enjoy miso, tempeh, or natto (we recommend only from Organic or verified non-GMO soybeans)
  • Sauerkraut, kimchi
  • Kombucha (do check the sugar content) 
  • Fermented vegetables ( e.g. cabbage, onion, olives, carrots, cucumbers )
  • Look for “live cultured foods” 
At home: 
  • Enjoy whole, organic plain yogurt topped with berries (fresh or frozen) and chia seed or freshly ground flax seed. This provides a triple threat of healthy probiotics, flavonoids, and healthy Omega 3 fat! Perfect as part of a healthy breakfast or snack. 
  • All of the ‘on the road’ options above are great to keep on hand in the refrigerator.
 
Fermented Cabbage - Healthy Anywhere
Fermented cabbage

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Research / References

Murray, M, Pizzorno, J. (2012) The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. 

Sharon, Dr. M. (2017) The Complete Guide to Nutrients. 7th Edition.

Murray, M, Pizzorno, J, Pizzorno, L. (2005) The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875-006-9066-7 “Spicing up” the immune system by curcumin.

  1. Sa G, Das T. Anti cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death. Cell Div. 2008;3:14. Published 2008 Oct 3. doi: 10.1186/1747-1028-3-14
  2. Tsai KD, Lin JC, Yang SM, et al. Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:593952. 10.1155/2012/593952
https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12628 Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Acute Ultraviolet B Irradiation‐induced Photo‐damage
 
Liu X, Zhang R, Shi H, et al. Protective effect of curcumin against ultraviolet A irradiation‑induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts. Mol Med Rep. 2018;17(5):7227-7237. 10.3892/mmr.2018.8791
 
doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.04.047 Effect of selected local spices marinades on the reduction of heterocyclic amines in grilled beef (satay)
 
Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. J Nutr Sci. 2016;5:e47. Published 2016 Dec 29. doi:10.1017/jns.2016.41
 
7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.110
 
8. Murray, M, Pizzorno, J, Pizzorno, L. (2005) The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. p 97 – 114; 143-144
 
9. Sadati SM, Gheibi N, Ranjbar S, Hashemzadeh MS. Docking study of flavonoid derivatives as potent inhibitors of influenza H1N1 virus neuraminidase. Biomed Rep. 2018;10(1):33-38. Retrieved at 10.3892/br.2018.1173
 
10. Murray, M, Pizzorno, J. (2012) The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. p 169-181
 
11. Murray, M, Pizzorno, J, Pizzorno, L. (2005) The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. p 113
 
12. Sharon, Dr. M. (2017) The Complete Guide to Nutrients. 7th Edition. p 287 – 298 
 
Lee GY, Han SN. The Role of Vitamin E in Immunity. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1614. Published 2018 Nov 1. doi:10.3390/nu10111614
 
13. Altieri, B., Muscogiuri, G., Barrea, L. et al. Does vitamin D play a role in autoimmune endocrine disorders? A proof of concept. Rev Endocr Metab Disord (2017) 18: 335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-016-9405-9
 
14. Selhub EM, Logan AC, Bested AC. Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry. J Physiol Anthropol. 2014;33(1):2. Published 2014 Jan 15. doi:10.1186/1880-6805-33-2
 
15. Tamang JP, Shin DH, Jung SJ, Chae SW. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:578. Published 2016 Apr 26. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00578.  
 
16. Marco, ML, Heeney, D, Binda, S, et al.Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2017 Apr;44:94-102. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2016.11.010. Epub 2016 Dec 18. 
 
17. Rezac, S, Kok CR, Heermann, M, Hutkins, R.Fermented Foods as a Dietary Source of Live Organisms. Front Microbiol. 2018 Aug 24;9:1785. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01785. eCollection 2018. 
 
18. Hur, Sun & Yuan Lee, Seung & Kim, Young-Chan & Choi, Inwook & Kim, Geun-Bae. (2014). Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food chemistry. 160C. 346-356. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.112.
 
19. Gille D, Schmid A, Walther B, Vergères G. Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):448. Published 2018 Apr 4. doi:10.3390/nu10040448
 
20. Markowiak P, Śliżewska K. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health. Nutrients. 2017;9(9):1021. Published 2017 Sep 15. doi:10.3390/nu9091021
 
21. Wall, R., Ross, R.P., Shanahan, F. et al. Lipids (2010) 45: 429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-010-3410-7
 

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